Open source multidisciplinary journal publishing platform

Tag archive

Technologies

Evolving Technologies In Healthcare Today

in Health and Medical by

Technology is steadily increasing, and innovations in technology seem to be occurring at an alarming rate. Technological innovations in the world of medicine are helping to provide better and more accurate care while helping to make patients feel more comfortable and relaxed. In recent years, we have seen the development of open MRIs that allow patients to receive diagnostic imaging without feeling constricted for extended periods of time. Similarly, the relatively new development of the da Vinci Surgical System that is changing the way surgery is being done today. These innovations have been enormous for healthcare as a whole, and new developments, which will be briefly discussed below, are also helping to change the way we view our health system in the future.

Communication Systems

It is certainly not uncommon to hear something like, “Paging Dr. Smith, paging Dr. Smith” or “Dr. Jones to Room 314, Dr. Jones to Room 314” over an intercom system in a hospital. However, a more innovative, direct form of communication will soon replace the current standard. Instead of paging physicians and other healthcare professionals over a loudspeaker throughout the entire hospital, a technology from Vocera is developing that allows hospital personnel to be contacted directly with personalized messages. This is changing the way hospital staff members communicate with one another and is beginning to have a remarkable impact on saving time, which ultimately can help to save lives.

Cloud Computing and Electronic Medical Records

When receiving healthcare service – whether it’s from a specialist with a private practice or in a hospital – it seems that the first thing that must always be done is to fill out a lengthy form detailing your medical and family history. Currently, hospitals and medical offices are not connected. Thus, every time you see a physician or healthcare professional, you must fill out a new family and medical history form. The future of healthcare may very well eliminate this process, all thanks to digital archives and cloud computing. In the future, you may find that your medical history will be organized and readily accessible with the click of a mouse. The process of digitizing medical records is in the early stages right now, but you can expect to see much improvement soon.

Two Types of Medical Printing

Printers are no longer only used for printing business and educational information, newspapers, magazines, pictures, and other similar text- and image-oriented documents. Technology in all facets has continued to increase and build upon itself, and ink jet printer technology is now used in especially innovative applications. Technology is becoming available that allows physicians to print what is essentially new skin, complete with healing vitamins and nutrients, for burn victims. The newly printed skin enables these patients to heal more quickly without developing unsightly scars and bruises.

Also, 3D printing is becoming increasingly useful in prosthetics. Medical researchers and physicians can use three-dimensional printers to simulate prosthetics for amputees that match patients’ limbs both in terms of size and skin tone. Then, when the prosthetics are actually produced, they are done so to be tailored specifically to allow patients to look more natural and function more effectively.

Better Doctors Through Video Games

Can doctors actually become better at what they do by playing video games? It may seem odd, but the answer may be yes. Some medical schools are currently exploring video games for their medical school students that are really more “work” than they are “play.” These video games are designed to simulate surgeries and make the “players” think quickly to improve decision-making skills and fine-tune surgical acuity to be better acclimated for surgery before operating on live patients.

How to Find a Tech Portal to know New Technologies News

in Technology by

Internet has made it really easy and swift to grab desired information. Internet has come as an opportunity that contains loads of options to grab relevant and newest information to boost your knowledge level. If you are looking for latest news in the field of technology, internet can be the most useful and helpful platform for you. There are tons of websites available that keep an eye on the latest happening of technologies. However, due to so many tech portals, it has become quite difficult to find out a right one. Thus, if you are confused on how to find a right technology news website to have new technologies news, you need to go through stated below points.
Choose a Tech Website
In order to grab latest news regarding the tech world, you need to choose a website, which is devoted to technologies only. However, there are various portals available that offer a separate section for tech news, but all these websites are not true tech websites. Hence, if you want to grab detailed and thorough information about the innovative technologies, you must go with a tech-devoted website. Remember, a tech portal houses different sections for different technologies such as Smartphone, laptop, computer, tablet, and many others as the list is certainly endless.

Tech Reviews

Having decided to go with only a tech-devoted website, you may still be confused as there are thousands of technology news websites available online to choose from. Therefore, in order to get yourself out of this dilemma, you need to go through reviews. Once you go through several top reviews, you will get an overall idea about some reliable, authentic and true technology websites. Here one point should be noted that a right review always highlights both positive and negative points about a tech product. Don’t rely on reviews that display only positive points or negative points of a tech product.

Price Information

Usually a technology news website informs about the new technology in the tech world. Say for instance, if a new app, feature and other function is added to a tablet, a right tech portal inform about it to end users. There is no doubt that you visit a tech website to know about latest tech products such as computers, laptops, phones, and tablets, thus you surely want to know price of your desired products. Choose a tech-website that offers thorough information about price tags so that you can get best deal according to your choice and budget.
Offers Bias-free Tech News

While looking for a technologies information portal to grab latest tablet technology news, you must confirm whether it offers bias-free tech news or not. It means that the website you choose should be authentic and offers tested information to end users. You must avoid going with a website that works as a third-party vendor i.e. promoting only affiliate marketing. Make sure the tech portal you choose should be dedicated to offer innovative tech news to end users.

In concise, if you follow aforementioned points, you can easily find out a right technology news website.

Medical Device Technologies Market Expected to Witness a Sustainable Growth over 2021

in Technology by

A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or related article that act by physical, mechanical, or thermal means and not by chemical action within the body to diagnose, prevent, or treat diseases or other conditions. Technologies which aid the medical devices to perform the diagnosis, monitor, and treatment of medical conditions are called medical device technologies. Technology plays an important role in each and every industry as well as in the personal aspects of lives. Advancements in medical device technology have allowed physicians to better diagnose and treat their patients, saving countless lives and continuous improvement in the quality of life.

Get access to full summary @: http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/medical-device-technologies-market.asp

The medical device technology includes: software solutions, imaging, biological derived devices, diagnostic equipment, aesthetic and respiratory, in vitro diagnostics (IVD), dental, electromechanical medical, and therapeutic radiation. Medical device technology is a broad field where innovation plays a crucial role, innovations in the technological front such as multi functionality medical devises, is one of the most important driving factor for the medical device technology market.

Moreover, for patient safety and consistent and fast analysis many hospitals and clinics are adopting workflow automation processes. Thus, hospitals across the world are upgrading the information technology (IT) infrastructure which can be a potential driver for the medical device technology market. Increasing rare diseases act as untapped opportunity and growing awareness about health care is the other factor that fuels the growth of medical device technology market.

However, pricing pressure and technical complexity with some medical devices restrict the global demand for the medical device technology. Regulatory structures for the approval of the medical devices also act as the restraining factor the medical technology device market.
The global medical device technologies market can be segmented into the type of devices such as; electro-medical equipment which include pacemakers, patient-monitoring systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, ultrasonic scanning devices and diagnostic imaging equipment. Irradiation apparatus including X-ray devices, computed tomography devices, surgical and medical instruments consisting of anesthesia apparatus, optical diagnostic apparatus, blood transfusion devices, catheters and others. Dental equipment and supplies includes equipment and instruments used by dentists, dental hygienists and laboratories.

A sample of this report is available upon request @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/6622

Other widely used medical devices technologies include biomaterials, bio-implants, non-invasive monitoring, molecular diagnostics and tele-medicines. Genetic diagnostic products and home- and self-care products are also some of the products in great practice. The emerging trends in the medical device technology markets comprises of robotic products and systems, robotic prosthetics, wireless products, artificial organs and organ-assistive products such as tissue engineered product, neuro-sensory product, electro stimulation products, glucose monitoring products, and others.

Geographically, North America was observed to be the largest medical device technologies market due to extensive technological advancements and major market players located in this region. Investment in medical device technology research and development have surged in the recent past as well as collaborations have led to recent advances including neuro-stimulators, stent technologies, biomarkers, robotic assistance and implantable electronic devices.

Europe is the second largest medical device technologies market due to increased geriatric population and government regulations assisting the market growth. Asia-Pacific is considered as an emerging market owing to the advancements in the technology and health care infrastructure. Japan, China and India are the fastest growing economy. Rising population, changing lifestyle and acceptance to newer technology are the factors which act as the market drivers in the region. South American countries such as Brazil and Mexico are the regions that have significant potential for growth due to developing medical infrastructure, and high disposable income.

To view TOC of this report is available upon request @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/6622

Various key players contributing to the global medical device technologies market comprises Abbott Laboratories, Inc., Becton, Dickinson and Company, GE Healthcare, Biomerica, Inc., bioMerieux, Inc., Novartis Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson Diagnostics, Inc., Olympus Corporation, Qiagen N.V., Siemens AG, Thermo Fischer Scientific, Inc., and Zenith Healthcare Ltd.

The Technologies That Run Tracking Devices

in Technology by

Tracking devices, also called 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) devices, are defined as technological tools that are used to observe a specific person’s movements by the use of a transmitter to relay radio signals back to a receiver which then enables one to pinpoint the exact location of that particular person.

Global Positioning Satellite, homing devices and cell phones are part of the tracking device technology, and they have all very useful purposes.

GPS, for instance, enables car drivers to have a knowledgeable virtual “companion” that can give out directions and help you be located by the proper authorities if and when you’ve gotten into an accident.

As a corollary, this technology can also be implanted on very important persons just in case they go missing or worse, kidnapped, and need to be found pronto. In fact, even non-celebrities are afforded this option.

In Mexico, for instance, senior staff of a company is required to have these chips as kidnapping is on the rise on that country.

On a more practical note, rental car companies like Payless have incorporated this type of technology on their cars so that they could tell when renters are crossing into forbidden states.

The guilty parties can be assured of an extra $ 1 charge for every mile driven on non-permissible states. The costs of these devices and their maintenance can vary greatly.

So we all know what tracking devices are and what they could do. But what exactly makes them tick? Such devices are based on electromagnetic, acoustic, mechanical or optical technology.

Mechanical tracking devices can measure orientation and position with the use of a direct mechanical connection between a reference point and the target. The advantage of this type of gadget is that they are accurate and their lag is short. The main drawback is that the operator’s motion is limited to the mechanical arm.

Optical tracking devices use the information contained in the projection of the LED’s to identify the position and orientation of the head.

There come in two kinds: in the first one, cameras are placed on top of HMD’s while a set of infrared LED’s are placed above the head at specific locations in a given environment.

The other type has cameras mounted on a fixed frame with fewer LED’s located at known position on the HMD. These types of tracking devices both have high update rates and short lags, although they usually suffer from line of sight problem.

Electromagnetic tracking devices work by measuring the magnetic fields’ strength generated by sending current through three tiny wire coils, placed perpendicular to each other.

These are then implanted in a small unit attached to the entity the system needs to track. These types of devices can track multiple objects simultaneously although they may experience interference with mechanisms that produce magnetic fields of their own.

Acoustic tracking devices employ ultrasonic sound waves that measure the position and orientation of the entity being tracked. This can be done through time-of-flight tracking and phase-coherence tracking.

The first type works by measuring the time needed to take for the sound sent out by transmitters placed on the target to reach sensors located at specific points.

The second type works by measuring the difference in phase between the sound waves produced by a transmitter on the target and those given off by a transmitter at some reference point.

Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market is growing at a CAGR of 19.4% from 2013 to 2019. By Transparency Market Research.

in Technology by

Epigenetics Drugs and Diagnostic Technologies Market was valued at USD 1.6 billion in 2013 and is estimated to reach a market worth USD 5.7 billion in 2019 at a CAGR of 19.4% from 2013 to 2019.

Browse the full report at http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/epigenetics-market.html

The growth of the epigenetics market is driven by factors such as increase in aging population, as there is a strong correlation between cancer and aging. According to WHO, it is estimated that global population over the age of 60 years would double from 11% (2000) to 22% (2050). People aged 60 and above are more prone to cancer. Hence, countries are advocating early detection of cancer through screening kits (Epi Procolon, Epi ProLung) which are driving the epigenetic drugs and diagnostic technologies market.

Epigenetic drugs make it possible to reverse the aberrant gene expression which leads to various disease states. The inhibitors, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) are responsible for regulating the cellular expression. Out of the two inhibitors, DNMT accounts for a larger share as these inhibitors offer an improved access for targeting the cancerous cells. Currently, four drugs are approved by FDA and are commercially available. Two of them are DNMT inhibitors: Celgene’s Vidaza (azacitidine) and Eisai’s Dacogen (decitabine) for the treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and the other two are HDAC inhibitors: Merck’s Zolinza (vorinostat) and Celgene’s Istodax (romidepsin) both for treatment of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL).

Epigenetics is a rapidly developing field not only in oncology but also in non-oncology indications (Alzheimer’s and arthritis). Due to the increase in disease identification, manufacturers are taking initiatives in development of varied epigenetic diagnostic techniques. DNA methylation technique in the diagnostic segment accounts for the largest share as compared to histone modification techniques, as the research on DNA methylation has been carried out since decades, and is thus mostly preferred. Furthermore, with the corresponding advancements in research and technology, histone code hypothesis technique came into existence only in late 1980s. Hence, with the surge in interest, there is also an increase in investment for the research and development of histone modifications.

North America accounts for the largest share of the epigenetics market. It is expected that North America will dominate around half of the global epigenetics market due to increasing incidence of cancer and other non-oncology indications. Oncology and other non-oncology indications (Alzheimer’s and arthritis) are associated with epigenetics; thus the increasing incidence of cancer supports the growth of the epigenetics market. Asia accounts for nearly half of the new cancer cases worldwide. The rising incidence of cancer cases in the Asian region would boost the demand for epigenetic drugs and diagnostic technologies in this market. Australia, China, Japan and South Korea are the largest markets for these therapies. Japan dominates the epigenetics market in Asia-Pacific due to a significant presence of companies in the therapeutics segment such as Eisai Pharmaceuticals and Oncolys Biopharma. These companies are taking initiatives for the development and commercialization of epigenetic drugs. Various research institutes and investments from these companies would drive the epigenetics market.

Some of the key players in this market include Celgene Corporation, Merck, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, Exact Sciences, Epigenomics and others. Manufacturers are entering into strategic alliances with numerous research institutions and other players for the development and commercialization of new and innovative drugs, which might see new players in the market looking to carve out a share of the market for themselves.
The epigenetics drugs and diagnostic technologies market is segmented as follows:
Epigenetics Drugs Market, by Mechanism of Action
DNMT Inhibitors
Epigenetics Diagnostic Technologies Market, by Types
DNA Methylation
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Technology
Epigenetics Technologies Market, by Geography
North America
Europe
Asia-Pacific
RoW

For Sample Report Visit On:
http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=422

About Us

Transparency Market Research is a global market intelligence company, providing global business information reports and services. Our exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trends analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. We are privileged with highly experienced team of Analysts, Researchers, and Consultants, who use proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather, and analyze information.

Our data repository is continuously updated and revised by a team of research experts, so that it always reflects the latest trends and information. With a broad research and analysis capability, Transparency Market Research employs rigorous primary and secondary research techniques in developing distinctive data sets and research material for business reports.

Create Successful Business and Corporate Websites From Zinavo Technologies at Suitable Price

in Arts and Design by

Do you feel your business website does not having the quality performance in make a revenue for your company and not getting that much customers? Zinavo Technology will start from scrape to create a new website that meets the demands of your online target audience.We are a leading Web Design Company and creative graphic design agency providing professional and corporate website design, eCommerce solutions with responsive format, and CMS systems as well as branding and internet & SEO marketing services for all kind of business.

Our team of website designers and developers using all the latest technologies and tools with great functionality to develop your website with attractive designs. If online users like your web site, they will trust you and make the business with you. Your website becomes a powerful component when form and function work together, that can grow your customer base and increase your business revenue.

As a Best Web Designing Company ,we provide the Following Services :

*Graphic Design
*Logo Design
*Bespoke Design
*Corporate Identity Design
*Responsive Design
*Infographics Catalogs & Brochures
*Custom and Unique Designs
*Mobile Apps UI Designs
*Landing Page Designs
*Custom Icon Design

As a Best Web Development Company ,we provide the Following Services :

*Static and Dynamic Website Development
*Joomla Development
*Wordpress Development
*Ecommerce Development
*Magento Development
*Custom Web Development
*Mobile Application Development

We have worked with many of the distinguished brands from various field. Our Portfolio Profiles will help to you for analyzing the quality of previous project work.Our technical team are highly skilled with experienced, who have the expertise to create and execute new concepts and functionality for web production. In addition, we offer dedicated and Quality services in website promotion,SEO,SEM and Digital Marketing stand out as a reliable and well recognized Website Development Company.Whether you are looking to create a new website or redesign your old business website, We have a different package to suit your needs. Our web design packages are very affordable and low cost expensive. We pride ourselves on providing packages to your budget and look forward to working with you to meet your business design requirements.

For More Details Contact Here:

Web Design Company in India
http://www.zinavo.co/
http://www.zinavo.com/
Zinavo Technologies
Call us UK: +442032898924
Call us IND: 080-32323100
Mobile: +91 8951605480
Enquiry us: info@zinavo.com
SKYPE us: zinavotechnologies

Gis Based Blood Banks With Sms Technology offered by Productive Technologies

in Health and Medical by

Productive Technology is an Oklahoma USA based company which offers GIS Based blood banks with Sms Technology, Report on GIS and Public Health Spatial Applications and custom software development application. It’s been a decade of satisfactory client services and support which speaks quality of work provided by the company.
Productive technologies meets day to days challenging requirements for new. Now a days, blood banks are operated by Geographical Information System with internet communication. Productive Technologies offers Donors can check the blood banks in the nearest possible distance with available slots for donation and book them online.
Historically, public health information systems, based in local, state and commonwealth governments, have collected and tabulated data on blood bank. For more information on how they can prove a beneficial asset to your business, please visit www.productivet.com
Productive technologies provides GIS based Blood banks with SMS Technology. GIS based Blood banks with SMS Technology helps to communicate efficiently with the donors in this regard as every individual has their mobiles at all times. In this system, donors can register their details online, check for the nearest blood bank for donation, check the availability of slots and book them online. Their requests are handled by the system and confirmations are sent immediately to the donors through sms and e-mail simultaneously.
Productive Technologies is an IT software service Provider Company based in Oklahoma USA. The company specialises in entire range of advanced dot net development services for dot net consultation. Our dot net applications are moulded with ASP.Net, MVC and web API with angular JS UI. With the help of dot net platform multi utility applications can be developed which are user friendly and business friendly which makes huge business easily manageable. Custom applications, CRM, e-commerce websites, WAP, CMS, ERP and much more. Productive Technologies also provides GIS and public health spatial applications.
Company’s expert developers track regiment Dot Net development procedure with helpful project management for on time project delivery. Productive technologies Oklahoma USA provides extensive GIS based blood banks with SMS technology with better quality and functionalities. Company’s expert developers implement GIS based Blood Bank with SMS Technology, and configure a back end Database

Global Medical Device Technologies Market

in Health and Medical by

The Global market for medical Device Technologies is expected to reach $ 642 billion by the end of 2020 growing at a CAGR of 7.2% from 2014 to 2020. Medical device manufacturing is a long process requiring robust SOPs & strict guidelines to be followed. Nowadays the design and production has become easier with the help of new modeling platforms. The new devices are dedicated towards a consumer driven model which includes wearable devices, wireless internet linked systems, etc. The technologies such as RFID and motion sensing are being used in monitoring devices. The medical device companies are finding out ways of implementing technology by understanding the needs of the customers & ensuring that the devices work round the clock.

United States is the largest medical device market because of large number of companies located in the country. Research & development investment in the companies has increased drastically which has in turn led to invention of new technologies The Global Top 10 Medical Device Technologies market is segmented on the basis of Type(mobility assisted technologies, bio-implants, diagnostic imaging, micro-arrays, minimally invasive & noninvasive surgery devices, biomaterials, mobile health & telemedicine, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery & drug delivery devices), End Users (hospitals, home based users, diagnostic centers, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, CROs, academia), and Geography (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific & Rest of the World).

Drivers
Technological advancements, rise in chronic disease( cardio-vascular diseases, cancer, COPD, etc), investment in research and development, rise in the number of aging population, need of preventive health care, increasing awareness of health and lifestyle are some of the major reasons driving the market.

Challenges
Strict FDA regulations, increase in taxes, increase in the cost of services & slowing revenue growth are some of the reasons hindering the growth of the market.

What the report offers
1) Market Definition for the specified topic along with identification of key drivers and restraints for the market.

2) Market analysis for the Global Medical Device Technologies Market, with region specific assessments and competition analysis on a global and regional scale.

3) Identification of factors instrumental in changing the market scenarios, rising prospective opportunities and identification of key companies which can influence the market on a global and regional scale.

4) Extensively researched competitive landscape section with profiles of major companies along with their strategic initiatives and market shares.

5) Identification and analysis of the Macro and Micro factors that affect the Global Medical Device Technologies Market on both global and regional scale.

6) A comprehensive list of key market players along with the analysis of their current strategic interests and key financial information.

Innovative Technologies – Mobile Medical Apps Are Improving Healthcare

in Health and Medical by

Mobile technology has dramatically impacted the way our society functions. Smartphones and tablets have not only transformed the way we communicate, but also have empowered us by placing a wealth of information at our fingertips. These innovations are carrying over to the healthcare industry, where modern advancements in mobile technology are changing the nature of medical treatment and preventive medicine. Patients can now obtain test results and track appointments on their mobile devices, while physicians can access medical records virtually anywhere, make assessments via video chat services, and communicate effectively with other healthcare professionals and patients.

The use of mobile technology in healthcare is not limited to the remote access of patient records, however. To illustrate, a patient who suffers from a chronic condition often must receive treatment as part of his or her daily life. Doctors and caregivers can become frustrated with such patients who “forget” to take their medications. Today’s ubiquitous mobile devices provide a new means to deliver healthcare reminders and entice a patient to take charge of his or her own well-being in a way that’s not only easy and convenient, but also perhaps even fun. And it doesn’t end there: these devices have the potential to do much, much more.

mySugr

The mySugr app was developed by a group of diabetics to help them and other diabetics log and keep readily available important data about their health. Patients can record a host of diabetes-related information, including blood sugar level, quantity of insulin, degree of physical activity, amount of carbohydrates consumed, and mood. The app incorporates gaming techniques to provide an overview of the average blood sugar level and display the blood glucose curve graphically, which allow a patient to analyze the results of his or her therapy — almost anytime and anywhere — and adapt it accordingly.

BurnMed

The BurnMed app was inspired by a gas tanker explosion that severely burned many people. Local healthcare facilities were overwhelmed by the influx of patients and, as a result, some did not receive proper treatment upon arrival. This app, which can be used by laypersons and practicing clinicians alike, provides comprehensive training on burn management through which the user draws the burned areas of the body onto a 3D anatomical figure. Using that information, the app calculates the total body surface area burned and the fluid resuscitation requirements, and then summarizes the essential steps of initial burn management.

DoctorMole

The DoctorMole app utilizes the camera feature on a phone or tablet to take photos of skin moles and then assesses them for possible malignancy using an algorithm that incorporates the asymmetry, border, color, diameter, and evolution approach (commonly referred to as the “ABCDE rule of skin cancer”). The developers caution that this app should not be used in clinical practice or by patients for self-assessment; however, it provides an intriguing and exciting glimpse into the potential of augmented reality for future healthcare apps.

vCath

The vCath app is designed to teach neurosurgical trainees the art of positioning and inserting a catheter into a human brain. Procedures are carried out on virtual 3D patients, so there is no risk of harm. This app introduces groundbreaking possibilities for the use of mobile technology as a training tool in the medical field.

Innovative mobile technologies such as these, which continue to evolve, can vastly improve communication, medical record-keeping, and the overall convenience and speed of patient care, and hospitals, medical professionals, and patients are responding with enthusiasm. As smartphones and tablets become more and more powerful and commonplace, along with this trend comes the potential to shape the future of healthcare.

Latest Technologies

in Technology by

As long as there have been people, there has been technology. Indeed, the techniques of shaping tools are taken as the chief evidence of the beginning of human culture. On the whole, technology has been a powerful force in the development of civilization, all the more so as its link with science has been forged. Technology–like language, ritual, values, commerce, and the arts–is an intrinsic part of a cultural system and it both shapes and reflects the system’s values. In today’s world, technology is a complex social enterprise that includes not only research, design, and crafts but also finance, manufacturing, management, labour, marketing, and maintenance.
In the broadest sense, latest technology extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our hands, voices, and senses. We use technology to try to change the world to suit us better. The changes may relate to survival needs such as food, shelter, or defence, or they may relate to human aspirations such as knowledge, art, or control. But the results of changing the world are often complicated and unpredictable. They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs, and unexpected risks–any of which may fall on different social groups at different times. Anticipating the effects of technology is therefore as important as advancing its capabilities.
In its broadest sense, engineering consists of construing a problem and designing a solution for it. The basic method is to first devise a general approach and then work out the technical details of the construction of requisite objects (such as an automobile engine, a computer chip, or a mechanical toy) or processes (such as irrigation, opinion polling, or product testing).
Much of what has been said about the nature of science applies to engineering as well, particularly the use of mathematics, the interplay of creativity and logic, the eagerness to be original, the variety of people involved, the professional specialties, public responsibility, and so on. Indeed, there are more people called engineers than people called scientists, and many scientists are doing work that could be described as engineering as well as science. Similarly, many engineers are engaged in science.
Scientists see patterns in phenomena as making the world understandable; engineers also see them as making the world manipulable. Scientists seek to show that theories fit the data; mathematicians seek to show logical proof of abstract connections; engineers seek to demonstrate that designs work. Scientists cannot provide answers to all questions; mathematicians cannot prove all possible connections; engineers cannot design solutions for all problems. But engineering affects the social system and culture more directly than scientific research, with immediate implications for the success or failure of human enterprises and for personal benefit and harm.